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The policies that centralized the Spanish state on the Iberian peninsula were extended to its overseas territories, especially after the end of the Seven Years' War, when Havana and Manila were captured (1762-63) by the British. . The situation worsened when, in 1735, just a few days before the coronation of Charles, the Pope chose to accept the traditional offering of Hackney horse from the Holy Roman Emperor rather than from Charles. This all occurred even though Charles had no military experience, seldom wore uniforms, and could only with difficulty be persuaded to witness a review. The Treaty of Paris of 1783 confirmed the recovery of the Floridas and Menorca and restricted the actions of British commercial interests in Central America. In response, a committee headed by the Tuscan lawyer Bernardo Tanucci in Naples concluded that papal investiture was not necessary because the crowning of a king could not be considered a sacrament.[18]. Charles III wanted to keep fighting the following year, but he was persuaded by the French leadership to stop. Símbolos de España. According to Domenico Caracciolo, this was "a fatal blow to the hopes and designs of the king of Sardinia".[32]. The crown curtailed the power of the Catholic Church and the clergy, established a standing military in Spanish America, established new viceroyalties and reorganized administrative districts into intendancies. A proponent of enlightened absolutism and regalism, he succeeded to the Spanish throne on 10 August 1759, upon the death of his half-brother Ferdinand VI, who left no heirs. Charles's father, King Philip V of Spain, wrote the following letter to Charles: Mi muy Claro y muy amado Hijo. He later had the Order of Charles III created in Spain on 19 September 1771. In 1718, Alberoni also ordered the invasion of Sicily, which was also ruled by the House of Savoy. The Duchess was examined by many doctors without any confirmation of pregnancy. [43], Charles's Italian minister Esquilache was hated in Spain, seen as a foreigner, and responsible for policies that many Spaniards opposed. [25], The participation of Naples and Sicily in the conflict resulted, on 11 August in the decisive Battle of Velletri, where Neapolitan troops directed by Charles and the Duke of Castropignano, and Spanish troops under the Count of Pledges, defeated the Austrians of Lobkowitz, who retreated with heavy losses. When Emperor Charles VI heard about the ceremony, he was enraged that Gian Gastone had not informed him, since he was overlord of Tuscany and the nomination should have been his prerogative. Tanucci had found a solution to Charles's acceding to the throne, but then implemented a major regalist policy toward the Church, substantially limiting the privileges of the clergy, whose vast possessions enjoyed tax exemption and their own jurisdiction. Alfonso XIII (Spanish: Alfonso León Fernando María Jaime Isidro Pascual Antonio de Borbón y Habsburgo-Lorena; 17 May 1886 – 28 February 1941) was King of Spain from 1886 until … Literary Movement . The 18th century and Enlightenment in Spain starts with the Succession War (1701-1714). After the fall of Reggio Calabria on 20 June, Charles also conquered the towns of L'Aquila (27 June) and Pescara (28 July). Taxes were collected by tax farming through low paid employees who supplemented their income by the exploitation of their position. Other buildings he had built in his kingdom were the Palace of Portici (Reggia di Portici), the Teatro di San Carlo—constructed in just 270 days—and the Palace of Capodimonte (Reggia di Capodimonte); he also had the Royal Palace of Naples renovated. His chief minister in Naples, Bernardo Tanucci, had a considerable influence over him. Giovanni Drei, Giuseppina Allegri Tassoni (a cura di) I Farnese. Charles III, (born January 20, 1716, Madrid, Spain—died December 14, 1788, Madrid), king of Spain (1759–88) and king of Naples (as Charles VII, 1734–59), one of the “enlightened despots” of the 18th century, who helped lead Spain to a brief cultural and economic revival. Charles thus assured the succession of one of his sons and, at the same time, reduced Charles Emmanuel's ambitions. It is the most pleasing thing imaginable to see her with her little husband: how they caress one another and how they love one another already. Charles himself would be engaged to Philippine Elisabeth who was the fifth surviving daughter of the Duke of Orléans. During his reign, the movement to found "Economic Societies" (an early form of Chamber of Commerce) was born. He died in the palace on 14 December 1788. Charles arranged for 10,000 Spanish soldiers to be sent to Italy under the command of the Duke of Castropignano, but they were obliged to retreat when a Royal Navy squadron under Commodore William Martin threatened to bombard Naples if they did not stay out of the conflict.[24]. In order to oppose the small but powerful pro-Austrian party in Naples, a new council was formed under the direction of Tanucci that resulted in the arrest of more than 800 people. In 1733, the death of Augustus II, King of Poland, sparked a succession crisis in Poland. This resulted in the creation of the "Códigos Negros Españoles", or Spanish Black Codes. He gained valuable experience in his 25-year rule in Italy, so that he was well prepared as monarch of the Spanish Empire. In March 1735 a new discord developed between Rome and Naples. In reaction to the Quadruple Alliance of 1718, the Duke of Savoy then joined the Alliance and went to war with Spain. They hoped that Philip would give the kingdom to Charles, who would be more likely to live and rule there, rather than having a viceroy and serve a foreign power. In the capital, he also had the famous Puerta de Alcalá constructed along with the statue of Alcachofa fountain, and moved and redesigned the Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid. Charles III University of Madrid, established in 1989 and one of the world's top 300 Universities,[48] is named after him. The eighteenth century in Spanish history is often referred to as Bourbon Spain, but the Spanish Bourbons ruled in the nineteenth century, following the restoration of Ferdinand VII in 1814. With the expansion, Spain hoped to undermine Britain's secret trade with Spanish America, and gain more revenue for the Spanish crown. "Intendancy System" in. For this, she looked to Austria, its principal opponent for influence on the Italian peninsula. Charles III of Spain and the concept of enlightened absolutism To be able to better understand the reign of Charles III and its influence on Madrid, we have to understand his mentality and how it affected his decision-making which, in turn, would leave its mark on not only how Madrid would look but also influence the lifestyle of its inhabitants. "Flow and Ebb, 1700-1833" in, Fernández-Armesto, Felipe. Those territories were separated from it, leaving huge possessions in Spanish America and the Philippines, which Charles III ruled. Charles had wanted to stay neutral during the conflict, but his father wanted him to join in and gather troops to aid the French. The third code, which was named the "Código Negro Carolino" after Charles himself, divided the freed black and slave populations of Santo Domingo into strictly stratified socio-economic classes.[40]. His second full brother, Infante Philip of Spain, was born on 15 March 1720. Intrieri writes that the arrival was a historic event and that the crowd cried out that "His Royal Highness is beautiful, that his face is as the one of San Gennaro on the statue that the representative". The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, that Charles had not ratified, foresaw the eventuality of his accession to Spain; thus Naples and Sicily went to his brother Philip, Duke of Parma, while the possessions of the latter were divided between Maria Theresa (Parma and Guastalla) and the King of Sardinia (Plaisance). Although the Seven Years' War had broken out in 1756, Spain had managed to remain strictly neutral under the ministry of Ricardo Wall, who continued to lead Spain's government in the early years of Charles III. Charles inspected the Spanish troops at Perugia, and marched toward Naples on 5 March. After exiling Esquilache, Charles expelled the Jesuits from Spain and its empire in 1767. "[5] John Lynch's assessment is that in Bourbon Spain "Spaniards had to wait half a century before their government was rescued by Charles III, a giant among midgets."[6]. In 1726 Charles met Philippine Élisabeth for the first time; Elisabeth Farnese later wrote to the regent and his wife regarding their meeting: "I believe, that you will not be displeased to learn of her first interview with her little husband. [28] He also instituted reforms that were more administrative, more social and more religious than the kingdom had seen for a long time. He and his wife had the Capodimonte porcelain Factory constructed in the city. The Kingdom of Naples remained neutral during the Seven Years' War (1756–1763). The Spanish Army and Navy were reorganized despite the losses from the Seven Years War. At the time of his accession to Spain, Charles named secretary to the Finances and Treasurer, Marquis of Esquillache and both realized many reforms. The duchy was occupied by Count Carlo Stampa, who served as the lieutenant of Parma for the young Charles. https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/what-is-enlightened-absolutism.html As the first son of his father's second wife, Charles benefited from his mother's ambition that he has a kingdom to rule, an experience that served him well when he ascended to the throne of Spain and ruled the Spanish Empire. A preliminary peace with Austria was concluded on 3 October 1735. Tuscany went to Emperor Charles VI's son-in-law Francis Stephen, as compensation for ceding the Duchy of Lorraine to the deposed Polish King Stanislaus I. consort to an Infanta naturalized as a Spanish Infante, Gian Gastone de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Royal Palace of La Granja de San Ildefonso, Suppression of the Society of Jesus § Spanish Empire suppression of 1767, Odoardo Farnese, Hereditary Prince of Parma, Wolfgang William, Count Palatine of Neuburg. 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